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Trees > Aceraceae - Caprifoliaceae

Aceraceae - Maple Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description
Uses

Striped Maple
Acer pensylvanicum

tree image

Slender tree, to 15ft; bark greenish, with white vertical stripes; leaves 3-lobed, finely double-toothed, up to 8" wide Native Americans used inner-bark tea for colds, coughs, bronchitis, & kidney infections; leaf & twig tea used both to allay or induce nausea, & induce vomiting, depending on dosage

Red Maple
Acer rubrum
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Deciduous tree that grows 20-40ft; bark smooth & gray when young; leaves 3-5 lobed, leaf sinuses v-shaped; twigs & buds reddish; fruit small, reddish samara Commonly called soft maple & sometimes wood used to make furniture

Silver Maple
Acer saccharinum
tree image
Deciduous tree that grows ft; bark rough; leaves 5 lobed, toothed, & have deep sinuses; fruit samara Fast growing tree that was once used to line city streets, however, it is very susceptible to breaking, so not used anymore. 

Sugar Maple
Acer saccharum
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Deciduous tree that grows 60-130ft; leaves green on both sides, 5-lobed with rounded sinuses; buds sharp; fruits samaras Maple syrup made from sap; New Englanders once drank sap as spring tonic; Native Americans used inner-bark tea for coughs, diarrhea, & blood purifier
     

Anacardiaceae - Cashew Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description
Uses
Staghorn Sumac
Rhus typhina
tree image
Shrub or small tree, 4-15 ft; hairy twigs & leafstalks; fruits long-hairy, red Berry tea used for "female disorders" & lung ailments; leaf tea used for sore throats & tonsillitis
     

Betulaceae - Birch Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description
Uses
Smooth Alder
Alnus serrulata
tree image
Shrub to 15ft; leaves wedge-shaped, or slightly rounded at base, toothed, wavy-edged; bark dark with few speckles Native Americans used bark tea for diarrhea, coughs, toothaches, Poison Ivy, & sore mouth

Sweet/ Black Birch
Betula lenta
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Tree to 70 ft.; alternate, simple, oval, toothed leaves; gray to black bark with horizontal lenticels; bark, leaves & twigs have wintergreen fragrance when broken Native Americans used bark tea for fevers, stomachaches, lung problems; Methyl salicylate, essential oil, made from bark & used for rheumatism, gout, bladder infections; can be used as pain reliever for sore muscles

Ironwood/ Hophornbeam
Ostrya viriginiana
tree image

Small tree to 20ft; leaves narrow to broad ovate, margins sharply serrated, 3-5" long; catkins short, cylindrical, producing flattened oval seed to 1" across with bristly hairs at base Native Americans used bark decoction as blood builder, to bathe sore muscles, rheumatism, & treatment for rectal cancer; inner bark used historically to treat fevers & blood purifier for malaria
     

Caesalpinaceae - Caesalpinia Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description
Uses

Eastern Redbud
Cercis canadensis
tree image

Small tree to 40ft; leaves heart-shaped, entire margins, 3-6"; flowers red-purple, pea-like appearing before leaves; fruit a flat, pod-shaped, inedible legume Inner bark tea highly astringent; often planted as ornamental
     

Caprifoliaceae - Honeysuckle Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description
Uses
Bush Honeysuckle
Lonicera sp.
tree image
Shrub; opposite, simple, pubescent  leaves Fruit is reportedly cathartic & emetic, but may also be poisonous

Elderberry
Sambucus canadensis
tree image
Shrub; 3-12ft.; opposite, compound leaves; fragrant white flowers in upright clusters; purplish-black fruit in Fall. Astringent, diuretic, promotes sweating, laxative. Inner bark used in pain killer. Crushed leaves act as an insect repellant.