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Trees > Fagaceae - Magnoliaceae

Fagaceae - Beech/Oak Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description Uses
American Beech
Fagus grandifolia
tree image

Deciduous tree that grows to 80ft; leaves alternate, sharply toothed, and persistent in the winter; bark grayish and smooth; buds sharp and cigar-shaped; nuts triangular shaped

Nuts edible and used as worm expellant by Native Americans; bark tea used for  lung problems; leaf tea used to wash burns and frostbite.


White Oak
Quercus alba
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Tall tree, 60-120ft; bark light, flaky, flat-ridged; leaves with evenly rounded lobes, without bristle tips; whitened beneath when mature; bowl-shaped cup covers on acorns
Astringent inner-bark tea once used for chronic diarrhea, dysentery, and bleeding; contains tannins

Scarlet Oak
Quercus coccinea
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Deciduous tree that grows 40-50ft; leaves deeply lobed; buds blunt or sharp, often whitish tipped; acorn cups bowl-like, ¼" deep

Acorns consumed by wildlife


Shingle Oak
Quercus imbricaria
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Deciduous tree that grows 50-60ft; leaves lack either teeth or lobes but has single bristle tip; foliage shiny above and densely hairy beneath; acorn cup bowl-shaped covering up to ½ acorn

Acorns consumed by wildlife

Willow Oak
Quercus phellos
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Deciduous tree that grows 70-80ft; narrow, bristle-tipped leaves resemble willow leaves, but are not related; acorn cups very shallow and saucer-like; trunk dark and shallowly grooved

Widely used in street and park plantings in the South. Acorns consumed by wildlife.


Northern Red Oak
Quercus rubra
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Tree, 60-120ft; bark dark, smoother than white oak; leaves hairless, thin, dull, with 7-11 bristle-tipped lobes, 5-9"; cup covers 1/3 of acorn Contains tannins; astringent inner-bark tea once used for chronic diarrhea, dysentery, and gargles for sore throats
   

Gingkoaceae - Gingko Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description Uses
Gingko
Gingko biloba
tree image
Large tree to 100ft; alternate, 2-lobed, fan-shaped leaves; a living fossil surviving over 200 millions of years; female produces oval, fleshy, foul-smelling fruit Leaf extracts used to increase circulation, improve oxygen metabolism to extremities and brain, antioxidant, and to improve memory
   

Hamamelidaceae - Witchhazel Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description Uses
Witchazel
Hamamelis virginiana
tree image
Deciduous shrub to 15ft;leaves obovate, scalloped margins, with uneven, wedge-shaped bases; end buds scapel shaped; Widely used today as astringent; Native Americans took leaf tea for colds and sore throats; approved in Germany for treatment of burns, minor skin injuries, varicose veins, and piles
   

Juglandaceae - Walnut/ Hickory Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description Uses
Bitternut Hickory
Carya cordiformis
tree image
Deciduous tree that grows 50-60ft; buds bright yellow and powdery; leaves compound with 5-11 leaflets; nuts smooth, cylindrical, and bitter; bark tight with network of ridges Nuts are edible and also consumed by wildlife.

Shagbark Hickory
Carya ovata
tree image
Deciduous tree that grows 60-90ft; compound leaves with 5-7 hairless leaflets; twigs stout, red-brown, slightly hairy to shiny; bark light colored and very shaggy; nuts egg-shaped, four-angled, and not ridged

>Nuts are edible and also consumed by wildlife.

   

Lauraceae -

Common & Scientific Name

Description Uses

Spicebush
Lindera benzoin
tree image

Shrub, 4-15ft; leaves entire, ovate, aromatic; fruits aromatic, glossy, red with single large seed Berry tea used for coughs, cramps, delayed menses, measles; berries used by settlers for allspice substitute

Sassafras
Sassafras albidum
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Tree, 10-100ft; leaves are fragrant and have 3 different shapes: oval, mitten-shaped, or 3-lobed; yellow flowers in clusters, appear before leaves; fruits blue-black Root-bark tea once used for blood tonic and purifier; also for stomach aches, gout, arthritis, high blood pressure, colds, fevers, and skin eruptions; ! warning! Safrole is reportedly carcinogenic
   

Magnoliaceae - Magnolia Family

Common & Scientific Name

Description Uses
Cucumber Magnolia
Magnolia acuminata
tree image
Deciduous magnolia, tree to 80ft; leaves large, oblong to lanceolate-shaped; fruits resemble small cucumbers; greenish cup-shaped flowers Bark chewed to break tobacco habit; fruit tea used as tonic