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As a scientist or a science teacher, there will be times that you want to share mathematical equations or formulas with your audience on a webpage, whether they are your students or your readers. Most of these special characters for these mathematical equestions in the fields of Biology and Health Sciences are greek letters. In order to correctly display these special greek letters on your webpage, you have to know the special "friendly codes" for them. These special "friendly codes" always starts with '&' and ends with ';' characters. The following table summarizes all of these "friendly codes", and to use these code, make sure that you have this HTML code on the header of your webpage:

**<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />**

For your convenience, decimal codes and hex codes are provided along with these "friendly codes" as a reference.

Greek Letter |
Friendly Code |
Decimal Code |
Description |

Α | Α | Α | Capital Alpha |

α | α | α | Lowercase Alpha |

Β | Β | Β | Capital Beta |

β | β | β | Lowercase Beta |

Γ | Γ | Γ | Capital Gamma |

γ | γ | γ | Lowercase Gamma |

Δ | Δ | Δ | Capital Delta |

δ | δ | δ | Lowercase Delta |

Ε | Ε | Ε | Capital Epsilon |

ε | ε | ε | Lowercase Epsilon |

Ζ | Ζ | Ζ | Capital Zeta |

ζ | ζ | ζ | Lowercase Zeta |

Η | Η | Η | Capital Eta |

η | η | η | Lowercase Eta |

Θ | Θ | Θ | Capital Theta |

θ | θ | θ | Lowercase Theta |

Ι | Ι | Ι | Capital Iota |

ι | ι | ι | Lowercase Iota |

Κ | Κ | Κ | Capital Kappa |

κ | κ | κ | Lowercase Kappa |

Λ | Λ | Λ | Capital Lambda |

λ | λ | λ | Lowercase Lambda |

Μ | Μ | Μ | Capital Mu |

μ | μ | μ | Lowercase Mu |

Ν | Ν | Ν | Capital Nu |

ν | ν | ν | Lowercase Nu |

Ξ | Ξ | Ξ | Capital Xi |

ξ | ξ | ξ | Lowercase Xi |

Ο | Ο | Ο | Capital Omicron |

ο | ο | ο | Lowercase Omicron |

Π | Π | Π | Capital Pi |

π | π | π | Lowercase Pi |

Ρ | Ρ | Ρ | Capital Rho |

ρ | ρ | ρ | Lowercase Rho |

Σ | Σ | Σ | Capital Sigma |

σ | σ | σ | Lowercase Sigma |

Σ | Σ | Σ | Capital Sigma |

σ | σ | σ | Lowercase Sigma |

ς | ς | Lowercase Final Sigma | |

Τ | Τ | Τ | Capital Tau |

τ | τ | τ | Lowercase Tau |

Υ | Υ | Υ | Capital Upsilon |

υ | υ | υ | Lowercase Upsilon |

Φ | Φ | Φ | Capital Phi |

φ | φ | φ | Lowercase Phi |

Χ | Χ | Χ | Capital Chi |

χ | χ | χ | Lowercase Chi |

Ψ | Ψ | Ψ | Capital Psi |

ψ | ψ | ψ | Lowercase Psi |

Ω | Ω | Ω | Capital Omega |

ω | ω | ω | Lowercase Omega |

Besides the above Greek letters, there will be times that you need to use mathematical operators on a webpage, especially when you are sharing mathematical equations or formulas with your audience. The following table summarizes all of the "friendly codes" for mathematical symbols for your webpage:

Mathematical Symbol |
Friendly Code |
Decimal Code |
Description |

← | ← | ← | leftwards arrow |

→ | → | → | rightwards arrow |

↓ | ↓ | ↓ | downwards arrow |

↔ | ↔ | ↔ | left right arrow |

↵ | ↵ | ↵ | downwards arrow w/ corner leftwards = carriage return |

⇐ | ⇐ | ⇐ | leftwards double arrow |

⇑ | ⇑ | ⇑ | upwards double arrow |

⇒ | ⇒ | ⇒ | rightwards double arrow |

⇓ | ⇓ | ⇓ | downwards double arrow |

⇔ | ⇔ | ⇔ | left right double arrow |

∀ | ∀ | ∀ | for all |

∂ | ∂ | ∂ | partial differential |

∃ | ∃ | ∃ | there exists |

∅ | ∅ | ∅ | empty set = null set = diameter |

∇ | ∇ | ∇ | nabla = backward difference |

∈ | ∈ | ∈ | element of |

∉ | ∉ | ∉ | not an element of |

∋ | ∋ | ∋ | contains as member |

∏ | ∏ | ∏ | n-ary product = product sign |

∑ | ∑ | ∑ | n-ary sumation |

− | − | − | minus sign |

∗ | ∗ | ∗ | asterisk operator |

√ | √ | √ | square root = radical sign |

∝ | ∝ | ∝ | proportional to |

∞ | ∞ | ∞ | infinity |

∠ | ∠ | ∠ | angle |

∧ | ∧ | ∧ | logical and = wedge |

∨ | ∨ | ∨ | logical or = vee |

∩ | ∩ | ∩ | intersection = cap |

∪ | ∪ | ∪ | union = cup |

∫ | ∫ | ∫ | integral |

∴ | ∴ | ∴ | therefore |

∼ | ∼ | ∼ | tilde operator = varies with = similar to |

≅ | ≅ | ≅ | approximately equal to |

≈ | ≈ | ≈ | almost equal to = asymptotic to |

≠ | ≠ | ≠ | not equal to |

≡ | ≡ | ≡ | identical to |

≤ | ≤ | ≤ | less-than or equal to |

≥ | ≥ | ≥ | greater-than or equal to |

⊂ | ⊂ | ⊂ | subset of |

⊃ | ⊃ | ⊃ | superset of |

⊄ | ⊄ | ⊄ | not a subset of |

⊆ | ⊆ | ⊆ | subset of or equal to |

⊇ | ⊇ | ⊇ | superset of or equal to |

⊕ | ⊕ | ⊕ | circled plus = direct sum |

⊗ | ⊗ | ⊗ | circled times = vector product |

⊥ | ⊥ | ⊥ | up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular |

⋅ | ⋅ | ⋅ | dot operator |

⌈ | ⌈ | ⌈ | left ceiling = apl upstile |

⌉ | ⌉ | ⌉ | right ceiling |

⌊ | ⌊ | ⌊ | left floor = apl downstile |

⌋ | ⌋ | ⌋ | right floor |

⟨ | ⟨ | 〈 | left-pointing angle bracket = bra |

⟩ | ⟩ | 〉 | right-pointing angle bracket = ket |

◊ | ◊ | ◊ | lozenge |

♠ | ♠ | ♠ | black spade suit |

♣ | ♣ | ♣ | black club suit = shamrock |

♥ | ♥ | ♥ | black heart suit = valentine |

♦ | ♦ | ♦ | black diamond suit |

Last Updated on **07-31-2014** at 12:00:37 PM

This page is designed and maintained by **Dr. Willson Kwok**