Did You Know?

Student worker, Ms. Corinne Donoway, compiled the below series of questions to promote diversity, equity and inclusion.

  • African American History

    Which Supreme Court case in 1857 ruled that enslaved Africans were not citizens and had no legal rights?

    1. Dred Scott v. Sandford
    2. Brown v. Board of Education
    3. Plessy v. Ferguson
    4. Marbury v. Madison


    • Answer (open to view)

      Dred Scott v. Sandford

      In this case, Dred Scott was an enslaved man in Missouri. He left Missouri to live in a free state. After the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Scott returned to Missouri, which had become a free state. Scott appealed to the Supreme Court stating that he should be a free man since the state is free. The court ruled that “a negro, whose ancestors were imported into [the U.S.], and sold as slaves,” whether he was free or enslaved, could not be a U.S. citizen, and therefore could not sue. Source

    Who was the inventor who revolutionized the production of cotton with the invention of the cotton gin?

    1. Eli Whitney
    2. George Washington Carver
    3. Benjamin Banneker
    4. Lewis Howard Latimer


    • Answer (open to view)

      Eli Whitney 

      Though the intention was to make the process of cotton production simpler, the creation of the cotton gin had many negative effects on enslaved people. The cotton gin revolutionized the process of separating the seeds of the cotton from the fibers, but the cotton still needed to be picked by hand. This boom of the cotton industry created a higher demand for slaves, and cotton plantations grew tremendously. Source

    What was the significance of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment during the Civil War?

    1. It was the first all-African American regiment to fight for the Union.
    2. It was the first all-African American regiment to fight for the Confederacy.
    3. It played a crucial role in the Underground Railroad.
    4. It was a group of abolitionist activists.


    • Answer (open to view)

      It was the first all-African American regiment to fight for the Union.

      The 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment 

    The "Black Codes" were laws passed by Southern states after the Civil War. What was their purpose?

    1. To grant voting rights to African Americans.
    2. To provide education and job opportunities to formerly enslaved individuals.
    3. To maintain white supremacy and control over freed African Americans.
    4. To encourage African American cultural practices.


    • Answer (open to view)

      To maintain white supremacy and control over freed African Americans.

      When the Civil War ended in 1865, the states that had been part of the Confederacy passed laws that restricted the jobs that could be held, property that could be owned, and many rights of African Americans. These laws were weakened by the Reconstruction Act which stated that all states must uphold the 14th Amendment and provide equal protection to all. Source

    Who was the African American educator and leader who co-founded the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)?

    1. Thurgood Marshall
    2. Martin Luther King Jr.
    3. E.B. Du Bois
    4. Booker T. Washington


    • Answer (open to view)

      E.B. Du Bois

      Along with being an activist for the rights of African Americans, W.E.B. Du Bois was a widely known author of “The Souls of Black Folk,” in which he wrote about the idea of “double consciousness.” He described this as the way African Americans feel as though they have two sides of themselves: an American, and a black person. One person with two different souls. Du Bois was also the first African American to earn a PhD from Harvard University. Source

    True or False: The "Little Rock Nine" were a group of African American students who famously integrated Central High School in Arkansas during the Civil Rights Movement.


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Little Rock Nine refers to a group of nine African American students who were the first to integrate Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas in 1957. Their enrollment was met with intense opposition, including protests and threats of violence from segregationist groups and some white students. Despite facing significant challenges and hostility, the Little Rock Nine displayed immense courage and resilience, playing a crucial role in the larger struggle for desegregation and civil rights in the United States. Source 

    True or False: Malcolm X was a civil rights leader known for his advocacy of nonviolent resistance and integration.


    • Answer (open to view)


      Malcolm X was known for his advocacy of black nationalism and self-defense. His ideas of self-defense and nationalism were in contrast to those of Martin Luther King Jr.’s, who encouraged peaceful protest and equality. These views set the tone for the contrasting ideologies of African Americans and the struggle for justice during the time of segregation and racial inequality. Source

    True or False: The 15th Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1870, granting voting rights to all citizens.


    • Answer (open to view)


      While the 15th Amendment granted voting rights to African American men, the amendment read, “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” If you read closely, the word “gender” is not listed. Women still could not vote! Source 

    True or False: The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a successful civil rights protest in which African Americans refused to use public buses until segregated seating was abolished.


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Montgomery Bus boycott was a 13-month protest that was sparked by the arrest of Rosa Parks in 1955. This major boycott led to the Supreme Court decision that segregation on public buses was unconstitutional. It was coordinated by the Montgomery Improvement Association, with its president Martin Luther King, Jr. Source 

    Who was the African American leader and educator who advocated for vocational training and economic self-sufficiency for African Americans?

    1. Frederick Douglass
    2. Booker T. Washington
    3. Martin Luther King Jr.
    4. Malcolm X


    • Answer (open to view)

      Booker T. Washington

      Booker T. Washington was an educator and reformer between the years of 1895 and 1915. He was one of the most influential spokesman for African Americans in this time, and he was the first president and founder of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, which is now known as Tuskegee University. Source 

  • Women's History

    Who was the women's suffrage leader who played a pivotal role in advocating for the 19th Amendment, granting women the right to vote in the United States?

    1. Rosa Parks
    2. Jane Addams
    3. Susan B. Anthony
    4. Eleanor Roosevelt


    • Answer (open to view)

      Susan B. Anthony

      Susan B. Anthony was a key part of the movement for women’s suffrage. In 1888, she helped to create the National American Women’s Suffrage Association, which she led until 1900. She lobbied Congress every year for women’s rights, traveled across the country giving speeches, and she gathered thousands of signatures through her petitions. Unfortunately, Anthony died in 1906, 14 years before the ratification of the 19th Amendment. Source 

    Which American woman became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean?

    1. Amelia Earhart
    2. Bessie Coleman
    3. Sally Ride
    4. Jacqueline Cochran


    • Answer (open to view)

      Amelia Earhart

      Amelia Earhart was an aviator that took off from Miami in 1937 in the hopes of being the first woman to fly around the world. With 7,000 miles remaining in her flight, the plane lost radio contact and disappeared. The plane was never found, despite grueling searches for her that continued for decades. Source 

    Who was the African American woman who was an influential abolitionist and women's rights advocate, famously delivering the speech "Ain't I a Woman?" in 1851?

    1. Harriet Tubman
    2. Sojourner Truth
    3. Maya Angelou
    4. Ida B. Wells


    • Answer (open to view)

      Sojourner Truth

      Sojourner Truth was an influential African American abolitionist, women's rights advocate, and preacher during the 19th century. She was born into slavery but escaped to become a powerful voice against slavery and for the rights of women. Her speech “Ain’t I a Woman” was delivered at the Women’s Convention in 1851, where she argued for gender and racial equality. Source 

    Who was the first woman to serve as a justice on the United States Supreme Court?

    1. Sonia Sotomayor
    2. Ruth Bader Ginsburg
    3. Sandra Day O'Connor
    4. Elena Kagan


    • Answer (open to view)

      Sandra Day O'Connor

      Sandra Day O'Connor made history in 1981 when she became the first woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. During her tenure, she was known for her pragmatic approach and served as a pivotal swing vote on many important cases. O'Connor's legacy as a trailblazer and her impact on the Supreme Court continue to be celebrated for breaking barriers and advancing gender equality in the legal profession. Source 

    Who was the African American woman who was a prominent leader in the civil rights movement and co-founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) alongside Martin Luther King Jr.?

    1. Rosa Parks
    2. Coretta Scott King
    3. Ella Baker
    4. Fannie Lou Hamer


    • Answer (open to view)

      Ella Baker

      Ella Baker was a civil rights activist and a key figure in the American civil rights movement. She played a crucial behind-the-scenes role, organizing and empowering grassroots efforts, and was instrumental in establishing the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Source 

    Which American woman was an influential author and feminist, best known for her book "The Feminine Mystique" which sparked the second-wave feminist movement?

    1. Betty Friedan
    2. Gloria Steinem
    3. Susan Sontag
    4. Audre Lorde


    • Answer (open to view)

      Betty Friedan

      Betty Friedan was a prominent American feminist and author who played a major role in the women’s rights movement. Her book “The Feminine Mystique” critiqued the prevailing societal expectations of women, which sparked the second-wave feminist movement. The book challenged the idea that women should be fulfilled by becoming a housewife and mother. It sparked the change in thought that women could be more than a housewife and mother. Source

    True or False: The 15th Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1870, granting voting rights to all citizens.


    • Answer (open to view)


      While the 15th Amendment granted voting rights to African American men, the amendment read, “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” If you read closely, the word “gender” is not listed. Women still could not vote! Source 

    Who was the American woman who founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and later received the Nobel Peace Prize for her humanitarian work?

    1. Clara Barton
    2. Florence Nightingale
    3. Harriet Beecher Stowe
    4. Dorthea Dix


    • Answer (open to view)

      Clara Barton

      Clara Barton was a pioneering nurse and humanitarian. She worked as a nurse during the Civil War, giving her the name “Angel of the Battlefield,” and providing aid to wounded soldiers. Barton founded the American Red Cross, and she led the organization to help others, provide disaster relief, and give humanitarian assistance. Source 

    True or False: Margaret Sanger was a birth control activist who founded Planned Parenthood in the early 20th century.


    • Answer (open to view)


      Margaret Sanger was a prominent birth control advocate who founded the organization that eventually became Planned Parenthood, contributing significantly to the advancement of women's reproductive rights. Source

    Which American woman was a trailblazing journalist and the first African-American woman to be awarded the Pulitzer Prize for her reporting on the conditions of labor camps?

    1. Nellie Bly
    2. Ida B. Wells
    3. Dorothy Day
    4. Mary McLeod Bethune


    • Answer (open to view)

      Ida B. Wells

      Ida B. Wells was a journalist, activist, and researcher in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. She used her skills in journalism to shine light on the harsh conditions of African Americans in the South. Along with this, she spoke out about racism, sexism, and violence. Source 

  • Indigenous People History

    Which indigenous group was forcibly removed from their ancestral lands in the 1830s, resulting in the tragic “Trail of Tears?”


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Cherokee Nation was one of the five major indigenous groups forcibly removed from their ancestral lands in the southeastern United States in the 1830s. This tragic event, known as the “Trail of Tears” was the result of the Indian Removal Act signed by President Andrew Jackson. This act led to the forced relocation of thousands of Cherokee people to “Indian Territory,” which is now Oklahoma. This journey resulted in the deaths of thousands due to harsh conditions and disease. Source

    Why did the U.S. government establish Indian reservations?


    • Answer (open to view)

      The government’s objective was to move Native Americans out of their land and open up more land for white settlers.

      They coined the term the “Indian Problem,” which referred to Native Americans living on the land that the white settlers believed they deserved. Native Americans were viewed as savages that needed to be civilized. This led to pressures to convert to Christianity, learning to speak English, and conforming to traditional European ways of life. Source 

    Which act passed by the United States Congress in 1887 aimed to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream American society by dividing tribal lands into individual allotments?

    1. Indian Removal Act
    2. Dawes Act
    3. Indian Reorganization Act
    4. Trail of Tears Act


    • Answer (open to view)

      Dawes Act

      The Dawes Act, also known as the General Allotment Act of 1887, sought to assimilate Native Americans into American society by dividing tribal lands into individual allotments. The goal was to encourage private land ownership and dissolve tribal governments and cultural practices. Source 

    Which Indigenous group was associated with the famous leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull during the 19th-century conflicts in the Great Plains?


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Sioux, also known as the Lakota or Dakota, were a group of Indigenous peoples who inhabited the Great Plains of North America. They were known for their skilled horsemanship and hunting abilities. Leaders like Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull played crucial roles in resisting the encroachment of settlers and the US government onto their ancestral lands. Source 

    The famous Indigenous woman Sacagawea served as an interpreter and guide for which expedition?


    • Answer (open to view)

      The Lewis and Clark Expedition

      Sacagawea was a Shoshone woman that served as an interpreter and guide to Lewis and Clark. She was an invaluable addition to their team, and her help was a symbol of courage, cooperation, and goodwill between Indigenous people and the settlers. Source 

    True or False: More than one in four Native Americans live in Poverty.


    • Answer (open to view)


      According to the American Bar Association, more than one in four Indians live in poverty, which is the highest rate of any racial group in the United States. Source

    True or False: Native Americans have plentiful economic opportunities on reservations.


    • Answer (open to view)


      Reservation poverty is largely due to the scarce amount of economic opportunities, and the average reservation unemployment rate has been 50% for decades. The median income for Native Americans is approximately two-thirds of the median income of non-Hispanic white Americans. Source 

    The American Indian Movement (AIM), a prominent Indigenous rights organization, was co-founded by which Indigenous activist?

    1. Sitting Bull
    2. Tecumseh
    3. Geronimo
    4. Dennis Banks


    • Answer (open to view)

      Dennis Banks

      Along with co-founding the American Indian Movement, Dennis Banks raised awareness of the mistreatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government through high-profile protests. Banks is also known for helping to lead the occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973. Source 

    Which Indigenous group established a confederation known as the Haudenosaunee?

    1. Apache
    2. Comanche
    3. Iroquois
    4. Lakota


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Haudenosaunee, also known as the Iroquois Confederacy, is a historical political and cultural alliance of six Indigenous nations: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora. They played a significant role in the history of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, influencing diplomacy, trade, and governance in the region. Source 

    The Ghost Dance movement, a spiritual movement among Indigenous groups, was associated with which tribe in the late 19th century?

    1. Cheyenne
    2. Cherokee
    3. Hopi
    4. Mohawk


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Ghost Dance movement emerged among several Indigenous tribes in the late 19th century, but it became particularly associated with the Lakota (Sioux) and Cheyenne. The movement was a response to the dire conditions Indigenous communities faced due to colonization and sought to restore their traditional ways of life and bring about a renewal of their people. Source 

  • LGBTQ History

    Which event is often considered the catalyst for the modern LGBTQ rights movement?

    1. Stonewall Riots
    2. Compton's Cafeteria Riot
    3. The Oscar Wilde Trial
    4. The Lavender Scare


    • Answer (open to view)

      Stonewall Riots

      The Stonewall Riots, which took place in June 1969 in New York City, marked a significant turning point in the fight for LGBTQ rights. It began when police raided a gay club located in Greenwich Village. The riots sparked when the people witnessed the rough treatment of the employees and patrons of the bar. It energized the LGBTQ community to organize and advocate for their rights. Source 

    The first openly gay elected official in the United States was:

    1. Harvey Milk
    2. James Dale
    3. Edie Windsor
    4. Christine Jorgensen


    • Answer (open to view)

      Harvey Milk

      Harvey Milk’s election was groundbreaking in that not only was he the first openly gay elected official in the U.S., but he was also one of the first in the world. He was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1977, where he served until his assassination in 1978. Source 

    The American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in what year?

    1. 1969
    2. 1973
    3. 1980
    4. 1990


    • Answer (open to view)


      In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association declassified homosexuality as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II). This action was taken after comparing differing theories, some of which claimed that homosexuality is pathological and some that believed it is normal. Source 

    The first country to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide was:

    1. Canada
    2. Netherlands
    3. Sweden
    4. South Africa


    • Answer (open to view)


      In 2001, the Netherlands became the first country to legalize same-sex marriage throughout the nation. There are now 34 countries where same-sex marriage is legal. Source 

    The first LGBTQ pride parade took place in which city?

    1. San Francisco
    2. New York City
    3. Chicago
    4. Los Angeles


    • Answer (open to view)

      San Francisco

      The first LGBTQ pride parade was held in San Francisco on June 28, 1970, to commemorate the first anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. Source 

    The first state in the United States to decriminalize homosexuality was:

    1. California
    2. New York
    3. Illinois
    4. Connecticut


    • Answer (open to view)


      On January 1, 1962, Illinois became the first U.S. state to decriminalize homosexuality by repealing its sodomy laws. Sodomy laws were used to target gay men in the 20th century. These laws created a hostile and negative perception of the LGBTQ community. Many were fired from their jobs, were not hired, were not allowed to adopt/foster children, and were not treated equally. Source 

    Which LGBTQ rights activist founded the Human Rights Campaign (HRC) in 1980?

    1. Harvey Milk
    2. Cleve Jones
    3. Marsha P. Johnson
    4. Larry Kramer


    • Answer (open to view)

      Cleve Jones

      Cleve Jones was an LGBTQ rights activist in the 20th century. He founded the Human Rights Campaign, which is one of the largest LGBTQ advocacy groups in the U.S. According to their website, HRC’s campaigns are “focused on mobilizing those who envision a world strengthened by diversity, where our laws and society treat all people equally, including LGBTQ+ people and those who are multiply marginalized.” Source 

    The "Lavender Scare" in the 1950s refers to:

    1. A series of anti-gay government purges
    2. The ban on same-sex marriage
    3. The AIDS crisis in the gay community
    4. The stigmatization of transgender individuals


    • Answer (open to view)

      A series of anti-gay government purges

      The Lavender Scare was a period of intense anti-LGBTQ persecution in the United States during the 1950s. During this time, the U.S. was facing its “Red Scare,” which referred to communism. The Lavender Scare, however, was a government-led campaign that targeted and purged gay and lesbian federal employees under the suspicion that their sexual orientation made them susceptible to blackmail and security risks. This period had a devastating impact on the lives and careers of many LGBTQ individuals and contributed to a climate of fear and discrimination for decades. Source 

    True or False: The "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy allowed LGBTQ individuals to serve openly in the United States military.


    • Answer (open to view)


      The "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy, implemented in 1993, prohibited LGBTQ individuals from openly serving in the military and required them to conceal their sexual orientation. Source 

    True or False: The AIDS crisis brought about significant advancements in medical research and public health policies related to HIV/AIDS.


    • Answer (open to view)


      The AIDS crisis spurred substantial medical research, activism, and public health policies that led to better treatments and increased awareness about HIV/AIDS globally. Source 

  • Asian American/Pacific Islander History

    Who was the Filipino revolutionary leader who led the Katipunan movement against Spanish colonial rule in the late 19th century?

    1. Jose Rizal
    2. Emilio Aguinaldo
    3. Andres Bonifacio
    4. Ferdinand Marcos


    • Answer (open to view)

      Andres Bonifacio

      Andres Bonifacio was a key figure in the Philippine Revolution and founded the secret society Katipunan, which aimed to achieve independence from Spanish rule. Source 

    Which country colonized Indonesia for over 300 years until its independence in 1945?

    1. France
    2. Spain
    3. Japan
    4. Netherlands


    • Answer (open to view)


      Indonesia was colonized by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the 17th century and remained under Dutch colonial rule until its declaration of independence in 1945. Source 

    The Opium Wars were fought between which two countries over trade and territorial control in East Asia?

    1. China and Japan
    2. China and Britain
    3. Japan and Russia
    4. Korea and China


    • Answer (open to view)

      China and Britain

      The Opium Wars were a series of conflicts between China and Britain in the mid-19th century. The wars were primarily triggered by China's attempts to suppress the opium trade, which was being promoted by British merchants in order to address a trade imbalance. The outcome of the wars led to China's defeat and the signing of unequal treaties, which further opened up Chinese ports to foreign powers and undermined China's sovereignty. Source

    Who was the first Emperor of China, known for unifying various warring states and establishing the Qin Dynasty around 221 BCE?

    1. Emperor Yao
    2. Emperor Shun
    3. Emperor Qin Shi Huang
    4. Emperor Han Wu Di


    • Answer (open to view)

      Emperor Qin Shi Huang

      Emperor Qin Shi Huang is known for unifying China and establishing the Qin Dynasty, which marked the beginning of imperial rule in China. Source 

    The Korean War began in 1950 between North Korea, supported by China and the Soviet Union, and South Korea, supported by which United Nations forces?

    1. United States and United Kingdom
    2. Japan and Australia
    3. France and Germany
    4. Canada and Italy


    • Answer (open to view)

      United States and United Kingdom

      During the Korean War, United Nations forces, mainly led by the United States and supported by the United Kingdom, intervened to assist South Korea in repelling the North Korean invasion. Source 

    The "Comfort Women" system during World War II involved the forced sexual slavery of women by the military of which country?

    1. Japan
    2. Germany
    3. North Korea
    4. Russia


    • Answer (open to view)


      The "Comfort Women" system was operated by the Japanese military during World War II, where women from occupied territories were forcibly recruited and used as sex slaves. Source

    The Great Wall of China was primarily built to protect against invasions from which group of people?

    1. Mongols
    2. Huns
    3. Romans
    4. Vikings


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Great Wall of China was constructed over several centuries to defend against invasions from the Mongol tribes and other northern nomadic groups. Source

    Which Indian ruler is known for his support of Buddhism and the spread of the religion to other regions, including Sri Lanka?

    1. Chandragupta Maurya
    2. Ashoka the Great
    3. Harsha Vardhana
    4. Akbar the Great


    • Answer (open to view)

      Ashoka the Great

      Ashoka the Great, an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, promoted the spread of Buddhism during his reign and sent Buddhist missionaries to various parts of Asia, including Sri Lanka. Source 

    The Bataan Death March was a brutal forced transfer of prisoners of war by the Japanese military during which conflict?

    1. World War I
    2. World War II
    3. Korean War
    4. Vietnam War


    • Answer (open to view)

      World War II

      The Bataan Death March took place during World War II when the Japanese military forced Filipino and American prisoners of war to march long distances under harsh conditions. Source 

    The Cham people, an ethnic group in Southeast Asia, once thrived in the Champa Kingdom, which was located in present-day:

    1. Thailand
    2. Cambodia
    3. Vietnam
    4. Malaysia


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Champa Kingdom, inhabited by the Cham people, was located in what is now central and southern Vietnam. Source 

  • Hispanic/Latinx History

    Who was the first Latinx person to serve on the United States Supreme Court?

    1. Sonia Sotomayor
    2. Cesar Chavez
    3. Dolores Huerta
    4. Oscar De La Hoya


    • Answer (open to view)

      Sonia Sotomayor

      Sonia Sotomayor was appointed to the United States Supreme Court by President Barack Obama in 2009, becoming the first Latinx justice in its history. Source 

    Who was the famous Mexican painter known for his murals depicting indigenous history and culture?

    1. Diego Rivera
    2. Frida Kahlo
    3. Salvador Dalí
    4. Pablo Picasso


    • Answer (open to view)

      Diego Rivera

      Diego Rivera was a renowned Mexican artist known for his large-scale murals, many of which portrayed scenes from Mexico's history and celebrated indigenous culture. Source

    Who was a prominent civil rights activist known for co-founding the United Farm Workers of America union?

    1. Cesar Chavez
    2. Dolores Huerta
    3. Rigoberta Menchú
    4. Che Guevara


    • Answer (open to view)

      Dolores Huerta

      Dolores Huerta is a prominent civil rights activist who, alongside Cesar Chavez, co-founded the United Farm Workers of America, advocating for the rights of farmworkers in the United States. Source 

    The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between which two countries?

    1. Spain and Portugal
    2. Spain and England
    3. France and England
    4. Portugal and England


    • Answer (open to view)

      Spain and Portugal

      The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed between Spain and Portugal to divide newly discovered lands outside Europe along a meridian, granting each country exclusive rights to explore and colonize their respective territories. Source 

    Who was the Cuban revolutionary leader who led the overthrow of the Batista regime in 1959?

    1. Fidel Castro
    2. Ernesto "Che" Guevara
    3. Fulgencio Batista
    4. Raul Castro


    • Answer (open to view)

      Fidel Castro

      Fidel Castro led the Cuban Revolution, overthrowing the authoritarian regime of Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and establishing a socialist state in Cuba. Source 

    The Mexican American activist known for her advocacy for labor rights and women's suffrage is:

    1. Dolores Huerta
    2. Sylvia Rivera
    3. Emma Tenayuca
    4. Cesar Chavez


    • Answer (open to view)

      Emma Tenayuca

      Emma Tenayuca was a Mexican American labor activist who played a significant role in advocating for labor rights and women's suffrage. She is best known for organizing strikes by women workers in Texas in the 1930s. Source 

    Which event triggered the Spanish-American War in 1898?

    1. The sinking of the USS Maine
    2. The attack on Pearl Harbor
    3. The Boston Tea Party
    4. The signing of the Treaty of Paris


    • Answer (open to view)

      The sinking of the USS Maine

      The Spanish-American War was triggered by the explosion and sinking of the USS Maine in Havana harbor, Cuba, in 1898. Source 

    The "Bracero Program" was an agreement between the United States and which country?

    1. Mexico
    2. Cuba
    3. Honduras
    4. El Salvador


    • Answer (open to view)


      The "Bracero Program" was an agreement between the United States and Mexico, allowing Mexican laborers to work temporarily in the U.S. agricultural sector during World War II. Source

    Which Latin American country experienced a civil war from 1980 to 1992 between the government and the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN)?

    1. Guatemala
    2. El Salvador
    3. Nicaragua
    4. Honduras


    • Answer (open to view)

      El Salvador

      El Salvador experienced a civil war from 1980 to 1992 between the government and the leftist guerrilla group, the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN). Source 

    The "Chicano Movement" in the United States focused on the civil rights and empowerment of which community?

    1. Mexican American
    2. Cuban-American
    3. Puerto Rican
    4. Dominican-American


    • Answer (open to view)

      Mexican American

      The "Chicano Movement" in the United States was a civil rights movement that primarily focused on the empowerment and rights of Mexican American individuals and communities. Source 

  • Catholicism History

    Who is considered the first Pope of the Catholic Church?

    1. St. Peter
    2. St. Paul
    3. St. Augustine
    4. St. Jerome


    • Answer (open to view)

      St. Peter

      Saint Peter was one of Jesus’s 12 Apostles, and he was a prominent figure in early Christianity. Before meeting Jesus, he was a fisherman. He became a devoted follower of Jesus and played a key role in the spreading of Christianity after the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus.


    The Coucil of Nicaea, held in 325 AD, addressed which significant theological issue in the early Church?

    1. The nature of the Trinity
    2. The authorship of the Gospels
    3. The role of the Pope
    4. The canonization of the New Testament


    • Answer (open to view)

      The nature of the Trinity

      The Council of Nicaea was called by Emperor Constantine I to address the dispute over the relationship of the Trinity: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. This council created the Nicene Creed, and it also recognized Jesus as a divine being.


    In which century did the Great Schism occur, leading to the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church?

    1. 2nd Century
    2. 4th Century
    3. 11th Century
    4. 16th Century


    • Answer (open to view)

      11th Century

      The Great Schism, which occurred in 1054 AD marked the split of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. The main reasons for the split were cultural and political differences between Christians in Constantinople and Rome, including the debate over the role of the Pope. The Great Schism created two different branches of Christianity that created their own unique traditions and practices.


    Who was the primary figure behind the Protestant Reformation in the early 16th century, challenging the authority of the Catholic Church?

    1. John Calvin
    2. Henry VIII
    3. Martin Luther
    4. Ignatius of Loyola


    • Answer (open to view)

      Martin Luther

      Martin Luther was a German theologist, priest, and professor whose actions played a pivotal role in the Protestant Reformation. He is best remembered by nailing his 95 Theses to the doors of the Wittenberg Castle Church, calling out the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church.


    The Reformation in England, leading to the establishment of the Church of England, was primarily driven by the actions of which English monarch?

    1. King Henry VIII
    2. Queen Elizabeth I
    3. King James I
    4. Queen Mary I


    • Answer (open to view)

      King Henry VIII

      King Henry VIII is known for having many wives in order to produce a son to be his heir. This led to a break between him and the Roman Catholic Church. When the Pope denied his requests for an annulment, he decided to detach from the Roman Catholic Church and establish his own church, the Church of England, also known as the Anglican Church. This event is often known as the English Reformation.


  • Islam History

    What is the holy book of Islam?

    1. Quran
    2. Bible
    3. Torah
    4. Bhagavad Gita


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Quran, also spelled as Qur'an, is the holy scripture of Islam. It is believed by Muslims to be the word of God as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. It is written in classical Arabic and is divided into chapters called "Surahs," which are further divided into verses called "Ayahs." The Quran serves as a guide for Muslims in faith, practice, and morality, and it is revered as the ultimate source of divine guidance and wisdom.


    Who is considered the final prophet in Islam?

    1. Abraham
    2. Moses
    3. Jesus
    4. Muhammad


    • Answer (open to view)


      Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca in the 6th century. He is regarded as the last prophet in Islam, believed to receive divine revelations from Allah (God). He is considered the founder of the Islamic faith and the central figure in the religion's history. Muhammad's teachings and life story, recorded in the Quran, serve as a model for Muslims in matters of faith, conduct, and spirituality.


    What is the pilgrimage to Mecca called, which is one of the Five Pillars of Islam?

    1. Hijab
    2. Zakat
    3. Salat
    4. Hajj


    • Answer (open to view)


      Hajj is the annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, which every physically and financially capable Muslim is required to undertake at least once in their life. During Hajj, millions of Muslims from around the world gather to perform a series of religious rituals that commemorate the actions of the Prophet Abraham and his family, emphasizing unity, equality, and spiritual renewal.


    True or false: Muslims face a certain direction during their daily prayers. 


    • Answer (open to view)


      Muslims face specifically toward the Kaaba in Mecca during their daily prayers as a symbol of unity and uniformity in worship. The Kaaba is considered the holiest site in Islam and the center of the Islamic world. Facing this direction during prayers unites Muslims worldwide in their devotion.


    What is the month of fasting observed by Muslims?

    1. Ramadan
    2. Shawwal
    3. Muharram
    4. Dhul Hijjah 
    • Answer (open to view)


      Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar and is considered the holiest month for Muslims. During Ramadan, Muslims fast from dawn until sunset, refraining from consuming food, drink, and other physical desires/needs. Ramadan occurs to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad and serves as a time of increased devotion, self-reflection, community, and charitable acts among Muslims.


  • Judaism History

    What is the holy date of rest in Judaism?

    1. Yom Kippur
    2. Rosh Hashanah
    3. Shabbat
    4. Hanukkah


    • Answer (open to view)


      Shabbat, also known as the Sabbath, is a sacred day of rest and spiritual rejuvenation in the Jewish religion. It begins at sundown on Friday evening and ends at sundown on Saturday. During Shabbat, Jewish individuals and families come together to light candles, recite blessings, enjoy festive meals, and abstain from work as a way to commemorate God's rest on the seventh day of creation and to focus on spiritual reflection and connection with the community.


    Which sacred text is central to Jewish religious tradition?

    1. Torah
    2. Quran
    3. Bible
    4. Vedas


    • Answer (open to view)


      The Torah is the most significant sacred text in Judaism, consisting of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, which are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. It is considered the divine and foundational source of Jewish law, ethics, and teachings, and is often referred to as the "Law of Moses."


    What is the Jewish New Year called?

    1. Rosh Hashanah
    2. Passover
    3. Hanukkah
    4. Yom Kippur


    • Answer (open to view)

      Rosh Hashanah

      Rosh Hashanah, often referred to as the Jewish New Year, marks a significant and solemn holiday in Judaism. It occurs in the beginning of the Hebrew month of Tishrei, typically in September or October. Jews observe Rosh Hashanah with prayers, the sounding of the shofar (a ram's horn), and by engaging in self-reflection and repentance, as it is considered the beginning of the Ten Days of Awe leading up to Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement.


    Which Jewish holiday commemorates the Exodus from Egypt?

    1. Hanukkah
    2. Purim
    3. Passover
    4. Sukkot


    • Answer (open to view)


      Passover is a major Jewish holiday that commemorates the Israelites' liberation from slavery in ancient Egypt, as described in the biblical book of Exodus. The holiday lasts for seven or eight days and is observed in the spring, starting on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Nisan. A main tradition of Passover is the Seder meal, during which the special text Haggadah is read, and symbolic foods like matzah and bitter herbs are consumed to symbolize the unpleasant years that Jews experienced in Egypt.


    Who is considered the father of the Jewish people in the Bible?

    1. Moses
    2. Isaac
    3. Abraham
    4. Jacob


    • Answer (open to view)


      Abraham, known as the founding patriarch of Judaism, holds a central role in Jewish religious tradition. According to the Hebrew Bible, Abraham made a covenant with God and is considered the father of the Jewish people. Abraham's unwavering faith, willingness to follow God's command, and his journey from Ur to Canaan are important narratives that continue to inspire and shape Jewish beliefs and values.


  • Agnostic History

    What does agnosticism primarily pertain to?

    1. Religious belief
    2. Political ideology
    3. Scientific knowledge
    4. Economics


    • Answer (open to view)

      Religious belief

      Agnosticism primarily pertains to religious belief. It is a stance taken in the context of religious and spiritual beliefs rather than political ideology, scientific knowledge, or economics.


    Agnostics generally take which stance regarding the existence of a deity or deities?

    1. They believe in a higher power.
    2. The deny the existence of deities.
    3. They claim certainty about the existence of deities.
    4. They are unsure or skeptical about the existence of deities. 


    • Answer (open to view)

      The are unsure or skeptical about the existence of deities.

      Agnosticism is a philosophical position that emphasizes uncertainty and skepticism regarding the existence of deities or the supernatural. Agnostics neither affirm nor deny the existence of such entities and often argue that human knowledge is limited in this regard.


    Who is often credited with coining the term "agnosticism"?

    1. Charles Darwin
    2. Isaac Newton
    3. T.H. Huxley
    4. Galileo Galilei


    • Answer (open to view)

      T.H. Huxley

      Thomas Henry Huxley, often referred to as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his defense of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, is known for popularizing the term "agnosticism" in the late 19th century. Huxley advocated for agnosticism as a philosophical position that emphasized the limitations of human knowledge and the need for evidence-based reasoning in matters of faith and belief. His writings and lectures played a pivotal role in promoting agnosticism as a rational and skeptical approach to religious questions during his time.


    Agnosticism differs from atheism in that it:

    1. Denies the existence of deities
    2. Affirms the existence of deities
    3. Takes no position on the existence of deities
    4. Claims absolute knowledge about deities


    • Answer (open to view)

      Takes no position on the existence of deities

      Agnosticism is characterized by uncertainty and the view that the existence of deities is difficult to determine, whereas atheism is defined by a lack of belief in deities, with some atheists actively asserting that deities do not exist. Agnosticism is often seen as a position of epistemic humility, while atheism is a position of non-belief or disbelief in gods.


  • Atheist History

    What is atheism?

    1. A belief in God or gods
    2. A lack of belief in God or gods
    3. An uncertainty of the existence of God or gods
    4. A denial of God or gods


    • Answer (open to view)

      A lack of belief in God or gods

      Atheism is a philosophical stance or belief system characterized by the absence of belief in the existence of deities, gods, or supernatural entities. Atheists typically assert that there is insufficient evidence to support the claims of religious beliefs.


    Which famous atheist author wrote The God Delusion?

    1. Sam Harris
    2. Christopher Hitchens
    3. Richard Dawkins
    4. Daniel Dennett


    • Answer (open to view)

      Richard Dawkins

      The God Delusion is a book authored by British evolutionary biologist and outspoken atheist Richard Dawkins. Published in 2006, the book explores Dawkins' arguments against the existence of God or gods and criticizes religious faith as irrational and harmful. The book has been both influential and controversial, sparking extensive debates and discussions on atheism, religion, and the role of faith in society.


    Which two countries have the highest level of atheism among citizens?

    1. U.S. and Sweden
    2. Brazil and Russia
    3. China and Japan
    4. India and Australia


    • Answer (open to view)

      China and Japan

      China and Japan have some of the highest rates of “convinced atheists.” Between 40% and 49.9% of Chinese people consider themselves “a convinced atheist.” This can likely be traced to the communist government of China, which believes that religion is a means of oppressing the proletariat. In Japan, between 30% and 39% of people consider themselves “convinced atheists.” Many Japanese people have historically practiced Shintoism, which focuses on the ancient past of Japan. However, this religion has seen a decrease in practice recently.


    Which prominent atheist organization is known for its advocacy of the separation of church and state in the United States?

    1. American Humanist Association
    2. Freedom from Religion Foundation
    3. United Atheist Alliance


    • Answer (open to view)

      Freedom from Religion Foundation

      The Freedom from Religion foundation was created in Wisconsin in 1978. It is the largest freethought association in the U.S., with over 39,000 members. They are best known for their legal work that deals with violations in matters of church and state.


  • Poverty History

    What is the most widely used international benchmark for measuring poverty?

    1. GDP per capita
    2. Human Development Index (HDI)
    3. Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
    4. Gini coefficient


    • Answer (open to view)

      Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

      The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is a comprehensive measure that assesses poverty through multiple factors, not just income levels. It was developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to provide a better understanding of poverty. The MPI considers various indicators, including access to education, healthcare, and living standards, to measure the quality of life and well-being of individuals and communities.


    Extreme poverty, as defined by the World Bank, is living on less than how many U.S. dollars per day?

    1. $1.25
    2. $2.00
    3. $5.00
    4. $10.00


    • Answer (open to view)


      According to the United Nations, “Nearly half of the world’s population currently lives in poverty, defined as income of less than US $2 per day, including one billion children. Of those living in poverty, over 800 million people live in extreme poverty, surviving on less than US $1.25 a day.”


    What percentage of the world's population lives in extreme poverty as of 2020?

    1. 5.4%
    2. 9.3%
    3. 14.7%
    4. 17.2%


    • Answer (open to view)


      According to The World Bank, the extreme poverty rate went up to 9.3% in 2020, an increase from 2019, when it was at 8.4%.


    Which region has the highest number of people living in extreme poverty?

    1. Sub-Saharan Africa
    2. North America
    3. Western Europe
    4. East Asia


    • Answer (open to view)

      Sub-Saharan Africa

      Poverty is often fluctuating due to a country’s development and income distribution. There are three regions in the world that suffer from higher levels of poverty: East Asia, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa, which make up for about two-thirds of the world’s population.


    What percentage of the United States population experiences poverty?

    1. 3.2%
    2. 5.8%
    3. 9.1%
    4. 11.5%


    • Answer (open to view)


      Poverty in the United States remains a significant issue, with millions of Americans living below the poverty line. Despite being one of the world's wealthiest nations, income inequality, lack of access to quality education, and healthcare disparities contribute to persistent poverty challenges for many in the country.